Children who weigh more than 10% of their normal weight are considered to be overweight; if they weigh more than 20% of their normal weight, they are considered obese. There are many reasons for childhood obesity, most of which are due to improper feeding. For obese children who are simply caused by overfeeding, there is no need for drug treatment, only to limit the intake of food that produces more heat energy, increase the amount of exercise to consume heat energy, which can achieve the effect of correction.
The main food for infants under one year old is milk. It is the best to feed them with mother’s milk, because the ingredients of mother’s milk are suitable for the normal growth and development of infants, which can prevent infant obesity. For example, when milk is used instead of human milk, in order to supplement the lack of sugar content in milk, 5% white sugar can be added, but not too much, and sugar can’t be added too much in the baby’s drinking water, because the heat energy generated by sugar also increases. In addition, each baby’s food intake is different, so when feeding a baby, if you observe that he has satisfied the expression, you do not have to force him to completely suck the milk in the bottle, so as not to overeat and get fat. In addition, some parents do not add auxiliary food according to the age of the baby, and feed starch food too early or too much, which makes the stomach capacity of the baby increase. Excessive intake of heat energy is also likely to cause infant obesity.
Children who continue to be obese after one year old should pay more attention to diet. The general principle is to adopt low calorie, low fat, low sugar, high protein and high vitamin food, namely “three low and two high”. The specific requirements are as follows:
(1) Total heat control. For children under 5 years old, the daily total heat supply is 2520-3360 kJ; for children between 5-10 years old, it is 3360-4200 kJ; for children between 10-14 years old, it is 4200-5400 kJ. Take 4200 kilojoules as an example. It needs 200 grams of grain, 400 grams of vegetables, 100 grams of lean meat, 250 grams of milk and 1 tablespoon of vegetable oil.
(2) Protein. Eat foods with high protein content, such as lean meat, fish, eggs, bean products, milk, etc. Protein supply should account for more than 30% of total food. The daily protein supply per kilogram of body weight is more than 4g at the age of 1-3, more than 3g at the age of 4-6, more than 2.5g at the age of 7-10, and more than 2g at the age of 11-14. With age, the supply per kilogram of body weight is correspondingly reduced.
(3) Sugar. Starch food, such as rice and flour, should be properly controlled; sugary sweets should also be limited. Because excess sugar in starch and sugary foods will convert into fat.
(4) Fat. Animal fat such as lard, fat meat, butter should be limited; plant oil such as soybean oil, peanut oil, sesame oil, corn oil, vegetable oil can be eaten more. The proportion of animal fat in the total fat intake should be controlled below 1 / 3. Animal fat is mostly saturated fatty acid, plant oil fat is mostly unsaturated fatty acid, both have their own effects, eating plant oil completely is not good for physical development. Therefore, animal fat should be eaten, but not more.
(5) Eat foods rich in vitamins and fiber. Cellulose provides less heat, which can improve the sense of satiety; and vitamin is necessary for human development, especially vitamin C can reduce lipoprotein and enhance the activity of protease, which can reduce blood lipid. Fresh vegetables and fruits are rich in vitamin C and can be eaten more often.