If the baby is poisoned by the wrong medicine, it should be sent to the hospital immediately. However, when far away from the hospital, in order to fight for time and not lose the opportunity of treatment, parents should carry out preliminary emergency treatment.
1. Remove the poison in the stomach.
The sooner the residual poison in the stomach is removed, the better. There are two commonly used methods: one is to use the method of emesis to make the sick child vomit the poison as soon as possible; the other is to wash the poison out of the stomach by the method of gastric lavage.
Emetic is to use fingers, chopsticks, cotton sticks and other things to gently wipe the throat, through this stimulation to cause nausea and spit out the poison. If possible, let the sick child drink more saltwater first, and then stimulate him to vomit, the effect will be better. This method can be repeated until the poison is vomited. Another method is to use an emetic, for example, dissolve 0.1-0.3 g of copper sulfate in 200 ml of warm water and take it.
Emesis is a quick and effective way to remove poison. However, when the patient is in coma, convulsion or taking corrosive substances by mistake, emesis is not allowed. If the poison has been taken too long and has entered the intestine, there is no need to induce vomiting.
If there are conditions for gastric lavage, gastric lavage should be carried out as soon as possible. If you don’t know what kind of poison it is, you’d better wash the baby’s stomach with warm saline or warm water; if it’s caused by alkaloids or heavy metals, you can wash the baby’s stomach with strong tea water. 1% soda water can be used in the case of organophosphorus poisoning. If barbiturates are poisoned, the stomach can be washed with a 1:5000 potassium permanganate solution. Gastric lavage is also as early as possible. If the poison is taken for more than 4 hours, gastric lavage will be ineffective. If children take corrosive substances, gastric lavage should be prohibited.
2. Remove the poison in the intestine.
After taking the poison, if it fails to induce vomiting or wash the stomach in time, the unabsorbed poison will gradually transfer to the intestine. At this time, catharsis or enema can be used to remove the poison in the intestine to avoid further absorption.
Catharsis. Use an appropriate amount of magnesium sulfate, add some warm water to dissolve and take it. Drink more water after taking it, and the poison will be discharged with diarrhea.
Enema. The significance of enema after poisoning is intestinal lavage. 6 hours after taking the poison or 1-2 hours after taking the cathartic, 1-2% saltwater or thin soap water can be used for bowel washing, and water can also be used. The amount of one infusion should be determined by the age of the child. It should be cleaned repeatedly. When a large amount of liquid is discharged, the poison can be taken out of the body.
3. Promote the excretion of poisons.
After the absorption of poisons, most of them are excreted from urine. Therefore, drinking a lot of water can promote the excretion of absorbed poisons from the body. Adding some diuretics is better.
4. Apply antidotes.
In order to resist the toxic effect, protect gastrointestinal mucosa and reduce the absorption of toxic substances, antidotes should be used as soon as possible. For example, milk, soy milk or egg white with a small amount of water can precipitate poisons, reduce irritation and protect the mucous membrane. This method applies to all kinds of corrosive poisons. When ingesting strong alkali by mistake, it can be neutralized by vinegar and an equal amount of water, and it is also effective to drink lemon juice and orange juice.
If the baby takes strong acid by mistake, it can be neutralized with dilute soap water and aluminum hydroxide. But it can’t be neutralized with alkali water or soda water, because when they neutralize acid, they will produce a lot of carbon dioxide, which is dangerous.
If the baby takes heavy metal or alkaloid poisons by mistake, drinking strong tea can precipitate poisons. Potassium permanganate solution can destroy organic poisons. Licorice soup or mung bean soup can be used for various drug poisoning.