In order to adapt to the new environment and survive independently, a series of changes will continue to take place inside the baby’s body at this time, so nursing during this period is very important for the newborn. The following points should be paid attention to in the initial care of neonates:
When the baby is born, quickly remove mucus and amniotic fluid from the oropharynx during delivery to avoid aspiration pneumonia, but do not scrub the mouth, because the neonatal oral mucosa is thin and tender, vulnerable to injury. If there is “thrush” — the oral mucosa appears spot-like albuginea, you can gently rub nystatin lotion.
Eye drops for newborns
0.5% neomycin or 0.25% chloramphenicol were used immediately after birth to prevent neonatal ophthalmitis. When the eye secretion is many, it can be wiped with normal saline or 2% boric acid cotton ball before dripping eye drops.
Environmental requirements of newborns
Neonatal bedrooms should be quiet and clean, elegant and sunny. If conditions permit, the indoor temperature can be controlled between 21 degrees and 24 degrees, and the humidity is about 60 degrees to 65 degrees.
Pay attention to cold and heat nursing
Neonates should be gently wiped and wrapped in clean and warm cotton blankets immediately after birth. The room temperature should not be lower than 23 degrees Celsius. The body temperature is measured every 4 hours on the first day after birth. When the body temperature is stable at about 36.5 degrees Celsius, it can be measured every 6 to 12 hours. If the body temperature is below 36 degrees Celsius or above 38 degrees Celsius, the cause should be found and treated. Because of the poor function of neonatal temperature regulation, it is necessary to keep warm in winter, prevent heat and cool down in summer, and increase or decrease clothes in time according to the change of temperature.
Pay attention to skincare
The newborn’s skin is delicate and easily damaged, so the movement should be gentle, the clothes should be loose and the texture should be soft. It is not suitable to nail buttons or use pins. Wash skin wrinkles with warm water, wash after each urine and dry with a towel.
Attention to umbilical cord nursing
When the new umbilical cord does not fall off, wash the umbilical cord once a day with 75% alcohol, and then cover it with sterile gauze. Don’t take a bath in the tub. No gauze is needed when the umbilical cord falls off, but the umbilical cord must be kept dry and clean. If red or purulent secretions are found in the umbilical cord, anti-inflammatory treatment should be carried out.
Correctly handling special physiological phenomena
Some symptoms will disappear naturally after a few days without special treatment, such as the so-called “horse teeth” of newborns, vaginal mucus or blood secretions within a few days after birth, red urine, breast enlargement, erythema, pigmentation and physiological jaundice (2-3 days after birth). If the time is long or there are other adverse reactions, they should go to the hospital for examination.